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# Middle School Course Descriptions

## Math

Reinforcing previously learned concepts of arithmetic (decimals, fractions, percentages, reading graphs, basic geometry and algebra) and furthering the student’s knowledge of these concepts using practical and fun processes is the core of this class.  This is done through the use of more complex problems, applying previous knowledge, and challenging them to think critically.  Students will see relationships between concepts, learn to go from the concrete to the abstract, understand how to apply these concepts to daily life and begin the process of learning algebraic expression. Interactive technology is used to practice these concepts.

#### Fundamentals of Math (Grade 6-7)

The Fundamentals of Math class is an accelerated course designed to prepare students for Algebra I.  It reinforces the students’ previously learned concepts of adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers, decimals, integers, and fractions through the application of real-life problems. Students also are introduced to the use of percentages and other parts of wholes through investigations into everyday scenarios. Students are further prepared for Algebra through an enriching study of measurement, both standard and metric, and unit conversions, introductory Algebra concepts and Coordinate Geometry. By the end of this course students will be ready to jump into more complex Algebra through a Pre-Algebra course.

The strengthening of students’ understanding of mathematical computation and problem-solving is the backbone of the Pre-Algebra class. Students explore concepts related to operations involving decimals, integers, fractions, and percents while being introduced to the basic ideas of Algebra.  Students delve into the exciting world of number theory through the concepts of  “order of operations”, prime and composite numbers, GCF & LCM, exponents, and square roots. Students are also acquainted with the algebraic concepts of coordinate geometry, algebraic expressions, polynomials, functions, graphs, basic statistics, probability, and the foundations of Geometry.

The Algebra I course is a high-level, rigorous study into the applications and processes of Algebra.  Students are presented with real-world scenarios and are challenged to discover the best methods for solving problems.  Students taking this course thoroughly master algebraic concepts such as real number operations, multi-step equations and inequalities, real world applications, functions, graphs, systems of equations, exponential operations, polynomials, radicals, and quadratic functions. Students analyze problems and come up with solutions in a variety of different ways: algebraically, graphically, or symbolically. Upon completion, students will be prepared for further high school studies in Mathematics including Geometry and Algebra II.

## Language Arts

The sixth grade Language Arts curriculum contains a rich focus of the writing process, literary elements, original expression, and vocabulary enhancement. The students discover and compose narrative, descriptive, compare and contrast, expository, and persuasive paragraphs and essays along with frequent informal writing with a variety of topics. The students explore a wide arrangement of literature through a Biblical worldview including historical non fiction, young adult fiction, Greek mythology, and classic short stories. Regular emphasis on vocabulary and the discovery of unfamiliar words ignite the student’s curiosity and propel them to apply these terms in their everyday communication.

The seventh grade Language Arts curriculum focuses on writing, literature, and vocabulary to continue student’s development to communicate and think creatively and critically. The students refine their written expression through both original and expository pieces. Students also continue to discover their writing style as they spend time brainstorming in their journals with a variety of topics. The students explore a diverse amount of short stories, novels, poems, and plays from various sources, genres, and points of view.  Class dialogue, scene enactments, small group discussion, and personal inquiry through journaling lead students to a deeper level of thought and a sincere engagement with the world of literature and language. They leave the course with further knowledge and confidence in their God-given ability to read, write, and think creatively and critically.

The eighth grade Language Arts curriculum expands the student’s study of writing, literature, and vocabulary through a Biblical worldview.  Students write often and in varied ways, including narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and expository forms. Through literary analysis and vocabulary study, students deepen their knowledge of and appreciation for reading and language. The course’s literary selections contain a wide variety of genres and writing styles including, but not limited to historical non fiction, folklore and fantasy, Shakespearean plays, and science fiction. Class dialogue, scene enactments, creative expression, group discussion, and real world application enrich the learning process as each student discovers his or her niche in the world of literature and writing.

## Science

#### Purposeful Design- Level 6 (sixth grade)

Through investigation of the fields of life science, physical science, and earth/space science students will be engaged in investigating, observing, and thinking about the world around them.  Every unit weaves the wonders of the world with a biblical worldview in such topics as classification of organisms, cell processes, matter and motion, rock cycle, and fossil formation. Science as inquiry is the main approach in this hands-on, activity based course.  Key words and concepts, along with visuals, experiments, and exercises are designed to engage the student with the knowledge to understand each concept and reinforce the course material.

#### Order and Design (Grade 7)

Our investigation of the fields of botany, anatomy, zoology, microbiology and ecology challenges students to see the ingenious structure and orderly function of the Lord’s creation with a Christian perspective.  Key words, illustrations, and discussions along with exercises engage the student with the knowledge to understand each concept and reinforce the course material. Experiments help students visualize and learn to apply the content studied. Critical thinking skills are encouraged as we navigate the information and think deeper than the content in question.

#### Earth and Space (Grade 8)

Our investigating the fields of geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy and environmental science challenge students to see God as the Creator and Sustainer of the universe from a Christian perspective.  Key words, illustrations, and discussions along with exercises engage the student with the knowledge to understand each concept and reinforce the course material. Experiments help students visualize and learn to apply the content studied.  Critical thinking skills are encouraged as we navigate the information and think deeper than the content in question.

## History

History is the study of ancient civilizations of Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas with a Biblical worldview. Focus of each civilization includes history, geography, government, economics, and cultural skills.  Integration of Biblical references are made throughout the course as they align with the beginning of civilizations and their relation to God and His truth. Students are engaged in ancient history through the use of printed text, hands on activities, and audio-visuals. While adopting a Biblical worldview of the events that shaped the history of the ancient world, students are exposed to God’s plan of redemption for the sin and suffering of the fallen world.

History is a survey of American history with a Biblical worldview from the exploration and colonization eras to Civil War. In addition to historical facts, figures, and geography, students will be exposed to politics, economics, foreign relations, religion, society, science, and the arts that have shaped the United States of America throughout its history. Students are engaged in American history through the use of printed text, hands on activities, and audio-visuals. This course continues in eighth grade. Throughout this two year course, students should understand God’s providence in the eras and events of United States history.

History is a survey of American history with a Biblical worldview from Civil War to contemporary United States. In addition to historical facts, figures, and geography, students will be exposed to politics, economics, foreign relations, religion, society, science, and the arts that have shaped the United States of America throughout its history. Students are engaged in American history through the use of printed text, hands on activities, and audio-visuals. This course is a continuation from seventh grade. Throughout this two year course, students should understand God’s providence in the eras and events of United States history.

## Bible

Sixth grade students will meet two days a week to discuss the Bible and how Biblical principles apply to everyday life. Seventh and eighth grade girls and boys meet separately two days a week. They will work on a Bible study and discuss issues that young men and women may face now or in the very near future.

## Physical Education

Sixth grade students will meet twice weekly. While elementary students learn fundamental drills in basketball, soccer, volleyball, softball, and kickball, sixth grade students learn to play competitively and learn more complex plays and skills. We also play many games just for the benefit of teamwork, enjoyment, and fitness. These games include capture the flag, ultimate frisbee, dodgeball, and many others. The goals of this class are to build confidence, acquire teamwork skills, encourage an active lifestyle, and create a positive learning experience for each student.  Gym class also provides many platforms for learning Christlike character.

#### Introduction to Spanish

Introduction to Spanish is a grade 6-8 beginner course offered twice weekly to all middle school students. This course surveys the Spanish language and culture through vocabulary, grammar, skits, oral exercises, projects, and multimedia presentations.  The missions component is also an integral part.  Students will be exposed to Spanish speaking countries by learning their demographics and geographical locations as well as weekly missions highlights.  Students should understand God’s love for these nations and how He uses missions opportunities to reach the lost in Spanish speaking cultures.

Technology (grade 6) is a required course for all sixth grade students.  The purpose of the course is to familiarize students to comfortably use many of the G-suite education applications such as Google Classroom, Docs, Sheets, Slides, and Draw.  Students will use issued Chromebooks to learn the features of these and more applications and complete assignments using them.  The goal is for the understanding gained in this class to be used to complete assignments in other courses throughout the year and beyond.

Leadership and Character Development (Grades 7-8) is a course designed to develop character and leadership qualities such as Christian values, self-confidence, communication, interpersonal skill development, teamwork, and attitude.  We will be using a leadership series called Habitudes. The Habitudes curriculum is a fun, creative and engaging way for the next generation to learn and practice leadership. Habitudes teach timeless character and leadership principles through the power of an image, a conversation, and an experience.

Entrepreneurship (Grades 7-8) is a course teaching the basics needed to launch your own business.  Students will be brainstorming and developing their own small business model from the ground up.  Students will learn introductory concepts related to small business about self-employment, finances, competition, and production. This course will also walk the student through the steps of setting up a business, including developing a business plan, a mission and a vision, and marketing your company.

## Arts Electives

#### Bucket Drumming 101 - 1st Semester (Grades 6-8)

This high energy and fun music class teaches the basics of drumming and rhythm reading. We will tackle everything from stick technique to note reading and musicianship. Students will learn how to read and write rhythm notation and strengthen their understanding of beat values. Students will also understand how to sight read and perform drum music in an ensemble setting. Each student must provide his/her own drumsticks. Buckets will be provided by the school. We will finish off the semester with a “Drum Line” style performance for parents and fellow students.

#### Drama Class - 2nd Semester (Grades 6-8)

In this fun, hands on, activity oriented class, we will explore basic acting and staging techniques. Through the study of drama, students will learn how to communicate in front of an audience, become more confident in public speaking, strengthen their teamwork and problem solving skills, and learn how to use drama as a ministry tool to share positive messages about God and the Bible. Students will have opportunities to perform various skits in chapel and during the evening of the spring concert.

This is an instrumental, performance based class. Classroom activities are designed to develop elements of musicianship including tone production, technical skills, intonation, music reading skills, listening skills, and analyzing music. Students study a varied repertoire of developmentally appropriate concert band literature. Regular at home practicing is a requirement. Previous band experience is strongly recommended. Students who join middle school band with no prior experience playing a band instrument MUST take private lessons. For all other students, private lessons are not required but are strongly recommended. The band will have at least two evening concert performances during the school year.

Entrepreneurship (Grades 7-8) is a course teaching the basics needed to launch your own business.  Students will be brainstorming and developing their own small business model from the ground up.  Students will learn introductory concepts related to small business about self-employment, finances, competition, and production. This course will also walk the student through the steps of setting up a business, including developing a business plan, a mission and a vision, and marketing your company.

## LEBANON CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS

LCS is dedicated to building the next generation of Christian leaders.